Chronic smoking wreaks havoc upon all tissues in the human body. Many of the adverse effects are directed towards the muscles, tendons, and bones or the musculoskeletal system. Nicotine and carbon monoxide, which are present in large quantities in tobacco smoke, result in reduced blood circulation and oxygen transport. Smoking results in accelerated osteoporosis and an increase in skeletal fragility. When fractures occur, they heal more slowly or do not heal at all. Wound healing is delayed. The effects of thickened blood with decreased oxygen are more pronounced in the hands and feet due their distance from the source of oxygen, the lungs.
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