Topics

Intro
Cigarette Smoke
Nicotine
Carbon Monoxide
Other Substances
Smoke and Bone
Bone Healing
Wound Healing
Osteonecrosis
Lower Back Pain
Arthritis
Dupuytrens
RSD (CRPS)
Summary
Bibliography

Welcome

A message from Dr. Conrad:

This site is intended for patients and physicians alike. Although smoking rates have declined, large numbers of adults and adolescents continue to smoke. The consequences are far reaching. The effects upon the heart and lungs are well publicized. Less well known are the effects upon the muscles, tendons, and bones of the human body: the musculoskeletal system.

Through this site, it is my hope to encourage interest and discussion in this important topic. Please join us in paging through the information and in participating in the interactive features of this website. I look forward to future discussions.

Sincerely,

Stephen Conrad, MD

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